This paper is an attempt of a cognitive analysis performed on a piece of Polish literature translated
into Italian, entitled Kosmos (Cosmos) by Witold Gombrowicz. The translation was made by
Francesco M. Catalucci e Donatella Tozzetti. It presents the difficulties and traps that translators
encounter in their work and emphasizes the complexity of translation process as a phenomena that is
not only linguistic, but also operating on mental level of individuals as well as of linguistic communities.
The analysis demonstrates some examples of Gombrowicz’s particular language and compares
them with the translated expressions. It explains how important is for a succeeded translation not
only the translator’s linguistic competence but, in particular, his wide knowledge about the nation
that speaks the language of the text to be translated.