K. Kleszczowa, A. Rejter (red.), "Bogactwo polszczyzny w świetle jej historii. T. 2" (S. 42-54). Katowice: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.
The author, referring to the etymology, shows the development of meanings and linguistic phenomena concerning the adjective ciężki (heavy). The methodology chosen and analysis of the pra-Indoeurupean root *ten allow for presenting the semantic field, around which the lexis deriving from the root and relations between meanings of such distant lexemes as ciężki (heavy), wstęga (ribbon), ciągnąć (pull) or tęcza (rainbow) was organized. A separate part of the work was devoted to the reflection concerning combinability and stability and/or changeability of lexical items.