O. Wolińska, M. Szymczak-Rozlach (red.), "Języki zachodniosłowiańskie w XXI wieku. T. 3, Współczesne języki słowiańskie" (S. 234-246). Katowice : Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego.
The kind of texts called in Polish declarations (statements or announcements) belongs to the group of genres of formal register. Declarations are unique in that they are able to effect changes in the world solely through speech acts. The utterance depicts a future state of affairs as viable. Among illocutionary meanings of the declaration are declarativity or performativity, commissiveness (the sender’s commitment) and persuasiveness (impact on the recipient). All these intentional values are of great significance in social communication, hence the vital role of declaration in public life. Declarations can be both oral and written. The kind of medium used affects the linguistic shape of the message. Oral declarations, which are common in situations of direct contact, have no strictly fixed form. In terms of content they can also be ill-considered and irresponsible. It is under their influence that we tend to attach negative meanings to the noun declaration (as in ‘empty declarations’) and the adjective declarative (‘groundless, hollow, unreliable’). In contemporary public discourse the gap between declarations of public agents and their conduct is frequently pinpointed. At the same time, a number of declarations transmitted orally have previously existed in writing. Therefore, it is essential to regard their spoken form as secondary. Declarations of this type resemble written ones, although they are commonly smaller in size. The difficulty in their description consists in the fact they are usually reported or summarized, with only a few (if any) excerpts quoted. Written declarations, and particularly their specialized varieties (charters, conventions) are texts that come in different sizes, are sometimes very thorough and detailed, always carefully drafted and often a result of arduous negotiations among many agents. They are marked by a high degree of explicitness and precision of language. They usually consist of a document of loose modular structure which allows for partial acceptance (ratification). The highly conventionalized whole occurs in the textual framework of a title, a preamble and a closing segment. The conventionality of structure and formulaic character of statements stem from pragmatic premises, facilitating also the perception and application of the text.