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Title: Imperceptywność w języku macedońskim i polskim
Authors: Błaszak, Magdalena
Keywords: język polski; język macedoński; gramatyka porównawcza; składnia; imperceptivus
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego
Abstract: Imperceptivity in Macedonian and Polish languages is the theme undertaken in my dissertation. “Imperceptivity” is a phenomenon manifested by communicating the speaker’s content in such a way that the information is transmitted as a secondary one and not his own one, but at the same time it expresses the speaker’s reservation to the veracity of the quoted information. In most Indo-European languages including Slavic it is expressed by lexical means, whereas Bulgarian and Macedonian is performed by the use of the appropriate forms of tenses [and possibly simultaneously supported by lexical means]. Imperceptivity is highly grammaticized and described in Polish as a category of witness; Macedonian прекажаност. Among Indio-European languages this category occurs in Lithuanian, Latvian and New-Armenian languages. The existence of this category among non Indo-European languages was also confirmed in Turkish, Mongolian, Caucasian and Urgo-Finnish. The purpose of this dissertation was the characteristic of Imperceptivity category in the respect of semantics as well as a description of subsequent cases of grammaticalization of this category and lexical ways of its expressing. Thanks to the realization of these goals I wanted the nature of this category to become more accessible and make less difficulty both in acquiring, teaching Macedonian and translation practice. Each language is organized on the basis of a system of categories which can put in order the language reality and the off-language world expressed in it. One of the features of language category is that it can vary even within the same family as far as degree of clarity is concerned and therefore the possessed exponents. Such a situation is noticed in Macedonian language which has developed the category unknown in most Slavic languages, including the Polish one. However, it does not mean to be completely absent in Polish language. The term “category of witness” and “category of Imperceptivity” described in Polish literature indicates the receiver of the text that the speaker was not a witness of a described event, but he repeats the words of the original sender. This category is also used when the author of the text is amazed and surprised of the present situation. The dissertation consists of five parts. In first chapter I tried to present the conceptual range of semantic category of “Imperceptivity”. The second chapter was divided into three parts. I discuss consecutively the means expressing imperceptive significance in Macedonian and Polish languages: intonation, lexical and morphological exponents including primarily the construction of the verb “to have” + infinitive. Its initial part contains the general characteristic of the dialect found in Macedonian. Then, I focused on the description of bitolsy and kicevsky dialects because of the importance they differ in terms of the category I am interested in. Chapter four includes analysis of the imperceptive sentence structure. I described conditions needed for the category of witness it creates with other modal sub-categories. Analysis concerns both compared languages. In the final section you can find the conclusions resulting from the comparison. Chapter five presents the way of showing the category of witness in various styles and genres of language occurring within journalistic style. Performing the analysis of Macedonian daily press texts I tried to show how much the difference between the direct and indirect transmission is present in the Macedonians’ language consciousness. I also brought closer particular cases of the adequate application of grammar tenses so that this category has become more accessible and comprehensible both in practical and theoretical terms. In other words to be well interpreted by non-native speakers. In the final part of this chapter the way of expressing the category of witness in the process of translation Macedonian prose is presented. The ways of transferring the category “прекажаност” by translators in Polish language have been discussed as well. The contrastive Macedonian-Polish approach revealed more clearly the nature of this category. Category of Imperceptivity is likely to be in more languages and in some European languages has been examined accurately e.g. Lithuanian, Bulgarian and on some basic level in Macedonian. It is not associated with one family, but on contrary, it occurs in grammaticized form in distant languages. The image of the category on a different level of grammaticalization in languages is used unequally consciously by the language speakers. As an example of such weaker awareness of its existence is Polish language. Confrontation with Macedonian literary language shows clearly that this category in comparison to Polish is much more grammaticized. In Polish it is mostly expressed by lexical exponents or quasi-morphological structure “to have” + infinitive. This latter structure, however, cannot be classified as strong exponents of this category due to its ambiquity and multifunctionality. In Macedonian the category of Imperceptivity is an “alive” one, noticeable in less rigorous styles – colloquial, journalistic and artistic. It is a consistent way applied by Macedonians with an average efficiency of language and language culture regardless of age, background or education; seldom used in scientific and official styles that is associated with less flexibility of stylistic and grammatical means. The category of witness is much more clearly and frequently visible in Macedonian daily press. The authors of articles apart from their genre select efficiently forms of the verbs, it means that according to the grammatical rules they use the category. Imperceptivity is visible in informative articles, sport information, topics in the field of culture. With the presence of this category journalists inform their receivers about the circumstances they participated or not and at the same time expressing their attitude towards transmitted contents. This category carries a full range in prose and allows the writer to use all possibilities for its transmission. In the case of translation Macedonian prose into languages which possess it in non-grammaticized or poorly grammaticized form. The process of translation can be a serious challange for a translator [e.g. in Polish translations]. Comparing Macedonian-Polish literary translations, a translator not always translates accurately the imperceptive meaning of the text. The difference between direct and indirect transmission is strongly present in the Macedonians’ language consciousness. In the case of Macedonian literary texts, translation does not differ significantly from the origin. The proper amount of verbs form verba decenti group indicating the category of witness is preserved. The lexical means are rarely used in translation to express imperceptive concepts of the origin. Because of the lack of proper tested category in Macedonian-Polish translations, the translators battled against the difficulties in selecting appropriate means of language –lexical.
ISBN: 9788380123243
Appears in Collections:Książki/rozdziały (W.Hum.)

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