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Title: Tragedia rosyjska doby Oświecenia (1747-1825)
Authors: Mazurek, Halina
Keywords: dramat rosyjski; literatura rosyjska; Oświecenie; Rosja
Issue Date: 1993
Publisher: Katowice : Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego
Abstract: The book treats about not very popular today and almost completely unexamined drama genre, being trady. It occurred in Russian literature equally often as comedy to which I already devoted a separate study several years ago. It did not undergo, however, such radical changes which, as a result, would give genre changes. However, at the end of the 18th c. one can observe in it clear sentimental influences, later, in the 19th c., romantic ones. I decided to examine representative and, for other reasons, important tragedies of the 1747—1825 period. 1747 is the date of the appearance o f the first classicistic tragedy Chorev by Alexander Sumarokow and in 1825 Boris Godunov by Alexander Pushkin was finished — innovatory masterpiece and cutting all the ties with the classicistic poetics. Between these dates I have drawn the conventional border running through the 90s of the 18th c. when created by Sumarokov traditional classicistic model o f bombastic and elevated tragedy with lofty subject matter, selected heroes and elaborate language, loses its popularity. Already on the turn of the centuries one can observe the growth of the importance of human feelings which will occupy more important place in the tragedy now. In the foreground is now the deepened interest in the inner life of an individual, its experiences, conflicts and dreams. Its clear exemple will become the dramas created by Vasil Narezhny, Fyodor Glinka, mainly Vladislav Ozyerov in whose output the classicist pattern has seriously broken down. The notion of the tragic nature, of an event has changed meaning now the inner conflicts of the heroes and their disappointment with the surrounding reality. Tragedy as work with specific artistic shape for centuries established by antiquity and then French classicism, presents many difficulties in the choice of research method. I have carried out in this work certain typology of Russian „high” drama, its ordering from the point of view of problems, subject matter, seence of the tragic character o f the events, loftiness, attitudes of heroes looking at these problems in purely literary aspect, taking into account the Western European background. The characteristic feature of the Russian tragedy was its historical framing. The authors, however, loosely treated the threat o f native history, looking in them only for the patterns of appropriate behaviour of monarchs and examples of the heroic attitude o f famous historical characters. The leading topic was fighting against tyranny and the main thread: tragical in effect conflict of personal feelings with civic duties. Popularity gained created by Sumarokov type of the tyrannical tragedy the best examples of which are given by the output of such authors as: Nikolev, Knyazhnin, later Dyerzhavin, Naryezhny, Glinka and Kuchelbecker. In the case of the latter the problems of tyranny and freedom is shaped already under the influence o f the Dekabrisl tendencies. At the end of the 18th c. and at the very beginning of the 19th, in connection with Napoleon’s conquests, getting ready for the war with Russia, „high” drama appears o f highly patriotic characters based usually on the historical events of the levy in mass victory under Pozharski’s command in 1612. In this type of tragedy the civic altitude of the hero and his devotion for the benefit of his motherland comes to the front. The large group of works are tragedies taking up antique and ancient themes. Here, in turn, the dominating subject matter is connected with the spiritual world of the man, it is less pathetic and, thus, more accessible to the receiver. The subject matter and problematic changes occurred here under the influence of the Romantic aesthetics. The heroes are characterized by the contemplative and meditative utterances on the sense of human existence, passing of life, loneliness, friendship and love. We still have to do with the selected characters and fight o f noble ideas, however, the attitude towards these problem changes. The motivation of the acting o f heroes is deepened, they become more natural and approachable. The tragedies of this type break with schemalizalion, archaic language, even with the traditional structure of verse. Sometimes they introduce the rhythimisized verse without rhyme (Naryezhny, Zhandr), more often usual rhymed with different length o f verses (Glinka, Kuchelbecker). In principle, they do not violate the three unities but considerably enrich the place of action through non-typical landscape and rich scenery already marked in wide didaskalia (Dyerzhavin, Naryezhny, Glinka, Ozyerov). Most strongly the acting of the Romantic tendencies appeared in the tragedies of Naryezhny, Glinka, Ozyerov and Kuchelbecker. Pompous tirades which were in the past used by the characters were now substituted by the utterances o f the elegiac and melancholic character, usually outpoutings on one’s own experiences, disappointments and hopes. In connection with this the mood of the tragedy, the lone of the conflict, the dynamics of dramatic fight changes, one does not feel the tension in the course of events. The specificity of the Russian version o f the classicist „high” drama consisted in its peculiar connection with epoch and literary period, socio-political life of the country and in engagement in its current problems. The greatest values has the tragedy of the first years of the 19th c, shaping its visage under the predominant influence o f Romanticism,. Its artistic achievements and Universalis! message are continued and improved Pushkin’s, Lermontov’s and Aiexy Tolstoy’s dramaturgy.
ISBN: 8322604998
Appears in Collections:Książki/rozdziały (W.Fil.)

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