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Title: The antimicrobial activity of annona emarginata (Schltdl.) H. Rainer and most active isolated compounds against clinically important bacteria
Authors: Dolab, Juan G.
Beatriz, Lima
Spaczyńska, Ewelina
Kos, Jiri
Cano, Natividad H.
Feresin, Gabriela
Musioł, Robert
Tapia, Alejandro
Garibotto, Francisco
Petenatti, Elisa
Olivella, Monica
Jampilek, Josef
Enriz, Ricardo D.
Keywords: (R)-2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-yl)propan-2-yl (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-acrylate; Annona emarginata; Antibacterial activity; Staphylococcus aureus; Structure-activity relationships
Issue Date: 2018
Citation: Molecules, Vol. 23, iss. 5 (2018), art. no. 1187
Abstract: Annona emarginata (Schltdl.) H. Rainer, commonly known as “arachichú”, “araticú”, “aratigú”, and “yerba mora”, is a plant that grows in Argentina. Infusions and decoctions are used in folk medicine as a gargle against throat pain and for calming toothache; another way to use the plant for these purposes is chewing its leaves. Extracts from bark, flowers, leaves, and fruits from A. emarginata were subjected to antibacterial assays against a panel of Gram (+) and Gram (−) pathogenic bacteria according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols. Extracts from the stem bark and leaves showed moderate activity against the bacteria tested with values between 250–1000 µg/mL. Regarding flower extracts, less polar extracts (hexane, dichloromethane) showed very strong antibacterial activity against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 with values between 16–125 µg/mL. Additionally, hexane extract showed activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC = 250 µg/mL). The global methanolic extract of the fruits (MeOHGEF) was also active against the three strains mentioned above, with MICs values 250–500 µg/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of MeOHGEF led to the isolation of a new main compound—(R)-2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-yl)propan-2-yl (E)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acrylate (1). The structure and relative configurations have been determined by means of 1D and 2D NMR techniques, including COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY correlations. Compound 1 showed strong antimicrobial activity against all Gram (+) species tested (MICs = 3.12–6.25 µg/mL). In addition, the synthesis and antibacterial activity of some compounds structurally related to compound 1 (including four new compounds) are reported. A SAR study for these compounds was performed based on the results obtained by using molecular calculations.
Description: This research was partially supported by grants from Universidad Nacional de San Luis and PIP 444-CONICET. J.D. thanks a fellowship from CONICET. E.S. and R.M. appreciate National Science Centre grant No 2013/09/B/NZ7/00423. J.K. and J.J. were supported by the grant of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Comenius University in Bratislava No. FaF UK/37/2018 and by SANOFI-AVENTIS Pharma Slovakia, s.r.o. The authors thank Luis A. Del Vitto (UNSL) for his help in the botanical classification and Marcos Maiocchi (UNNE) for the help in the collection of the plant material. B.L., G.E.F. and A.T. thank CICITCA-UNSJ.
DOI: 10.3390/molecules23051187
ISSN: 1420-3049
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