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Title: Effect of cryogrinding on chemical stability of the sparingly water-soluble drug furosemide
Authors: Adrjanowicz, Karolina
Kamiński, Kamil
Grzybowska, Katarzyna
Hawełek, Łukasz
Paluch, Marian
Gruszka, Irena
Zakowiecki, D.
Sawicki, W.
Lepek, P.
Kamysz, W.
Guzik, L.
Keywords: amorphous pharmaceuticals; cryogenic grinding; furosemide; mechnochemical reactions; solid state amorphization
Issue Date: 2011
Citation: Pharmaceutical Research, No. 12 (2011), s. 3220-3236
Abstract: Purpose To investigate the effect of cryogrinding on chemical stability of the diuretic agent furosemide and its mixtures with selected excipients. Methods Furosemide was ground at liquid nitrogen temperature for 30, 60, 120 and 180 min. Mixtures of furosemide-PVP and furosemide-inulin (1:1) were milled under cryogenic conditions. Materials were analyzed by XRD, UPLC, MS and NMR. Results Upon increasing the milling time, a significant build-up of an unidentified impurity 1, probably the main degradation product, was noticed. Cogrinding of furosemide with PVP and inulin worsened chemical stabilization of the pharmaceutical. The main degradation product formed upon cryomilling was subsequently identified as 4-chloro-5-sulfamoylanthranilic acid (CSA). Based on some theoretical considerations involving specific milling conditions, the milling intensity and an expected specific milling dose have been calculated. Results indicate that cryogenic grinding is capable to initiate mechanically induced decomposition of furosemide.Conclusions Cryogenic grinding can activate and accelerate not only structural changes (solid state amorphization) but also chemical decomposition of pharmaceuticals. A cryogenic milling device should be considered as a chemical reactor, where under favourable conditions chemical reactions could be mechanically initiated.
DOI: 10.1007/s11095-011-0496-4
ISSN: 0724-8741
Appears in Collections:Artykuły (WNŚiT)

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