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Title: Studies on the vitrified and cryomilled bosentan
Authors: Milecka, Aldona
Chmiel, Krzysztof
Jurkiewicz, Karolina
Hachuła, Barbara
Łunio, Rafał
Żakowiecki, Daniel
Hyla, Kinga
Milanowski, Bartłomiej
Koperwas, Kajetan
Kamiński, Kamil
Paluch, Marian
Kamińska, Ewa
Keywords: bosentan; vitrification; cryomilling; molecular mobility; water removal; dissolution rate
Issue Date: 2021
Citation: "Molecular Pharmaceutics" (2021), iss. 0, s. 1-11
Abstract: In this paper, several experimental techniques [X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and broad-band dielectric spectroscopy] have been applied to characterize the structural and thermal properties, H-bonding pattern, and molecular dynamics of amorphous bosentan (BOS) obtained by vitrification and cryomilling of the monohydrate crystalline form of this drug. Samples prepared by these two methods were found to be similar with regard to their internal structure, H-bonding scheme, and structural (α) dynamics in the supercooled liquid state. However, based on the analysis of α-relaxation times (dielectric measurements) predicted for temperatures below the glass-transition temperature (Tg), as well as DSC thermograms, it was concluded that the cryoground sample is more aged (and probably more physically stable) compared to the vitrified one. Interestingly, such differences in physical properties turned out to be reflected in the lower intrinsic dissolution rate of BOS obtained by cryomilling (in the first 15 min of dissolution test) in comparison to the vitrified drug. Furthermore, we showed that cryogrinding of the crystalline BOS monohydrate leads to the formation of a nearly anhydrous amorphous sample. This finding, different from that reported by Megarry et al. [Carbohydr. Res. 2011, 346, 1061−1064] for trehalose (TRE), was revealed on the basis of infrared and thermal measurements. Finally, two various hypotheses explaining water removal upon cryomilling have been discussed in the manuscript.
DOI: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.1c00613
ISSN: 1543-8392
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